Monday, May 11, 2009

HISTORY, DEFINATION AND SCOPE OF PHARMACOGNOSY

HISTORY, DEFINATION AND SCOPE OF PHARMACOGNOSY

  • Pharmacognosy is defined as scientific & systematic study of structural, physical, chemical & biological characters of crude drugs along with history, method of cultivation, collection & preparation for the market.
  • Crude Drugs: - Crude drugs are the drugs, which are obtained form natural sources like plant. Animals , minerals & they are used as such as they occur in nature without any processing except, drying & size reduction.

 

Source

Example

Vegetable Source

Fennel, Dill, Clove and Senna

Animal Source

Honey, Bees wax, Shark liver Oil

Mineral Source

Talc, Chalk, Bentonite

 

Work of Seydler.

Seydler was German scientist he wrote a book " Analecta Pharmacognistica " in 1815. In this book he used word pharmacognosy first time he coined (to Prepare) this word by combining two Greek words

1) Pharmakon: - Drug

2) Gignosco: - To acquire knowledge of 

2)        Work of Galen:  - (131 - 200)

Galen was Greek pharmacist; he worked on extraction of chemical constituent from the plants. He developed various methods of extraction therefore the branch of pharmacy which deals with extraction of chemical constituent from plants & animals is called as galenical Pharmacy.

3)         Hippocrates (460 - 360. B.C.)

Before the birth of Jesus. He was Greek scientist; he worked on human anatomy & Physiology Particularly on circulatory system & nervous system. He prepared famous oath for physicians, which is still taken by the physicians. He is known as father of medicine.

 

 

4)         Indian History Of Pharmacognosy: -

It is about 5500 years old, in the suktas of Rigveda & Atharwaveda medicinal property of plant is given. There are several medicinal plants, which are given with there use. The old Ayurveda Books, Charak samhita & Sushrutsamtita described many medicinal plants.

5)         Traditional Indian System of medicine (Indigenous) i. g. old system.

a) Ayurveda: - The old system of treatment in India. It is 5500 years old. Ayurveda believes there are 3 principles 1) cough. 2) Vat. 3) Pitta. Which are responsible to maintain health. If their equilibrium is disturbed persons suffers from diseases

Ayurveda cures the cause of disease. The principles of positive health and therapeutic measures embedded in this system relate to mental, physical, social and spiritual welfare of human beings. Drugs of Ayurveda are obtained mostly from plants.

Dosage of Ayurveda are 1) Bhasma (oxides of metals) 2) Quath (extracts) 3) Gutika (pills) 4) Lep (ointment) 5) Asava & Arishtha (Alcohol containing liquids.) 6) powder. 7) Medicated oils. There are eight braches of Ayurveda.

1.      Kayachikitsa (Internal medicine)

2.      Kumarbhritya (pediatrics)

3.      Trachchikitsa (psychological medicine)

4.      Shalakya Tantra [(CENT) Ears, Nose & throat]

5.      Shalya Tantra (surgery)

6.      Agada tantra (toxicology)

7.      Rasayana tantra (geriatrics- medicines for the old persons)

8.      Vajikaran tantra [Aphrodisiacs, drugs which are sexual stimulants.]

Sidha System of Medicine.

The "Siddhas" developed the Sidha system of medicine (Spiritual persons). It is old than ' Vedic culture ' it belongs to Dravidian culture. Like Ayurveda the medicines are prepared from plants. The literature of this system is given in Tamil Language. Like Ayurveda it believes that all objects in universe, are made from 5. Elements. 1) Earth. 2) Water. 3) Sky. 4) Air. & 5) Fire.

Diseases are identified by examination of pulse, voice, colour, of urine, tongue, and shadow. Etc. The books are written in Tamil.

 

Naturopathy & yoga: -

Naturopathy is not only a system of treatment but it also teaches the way of living. In naturopathy use of soil & water is important in treatment of diseases mudpacks & steam baths are used. Fasting is also used to treat diseases.

Yoga consists of two parts: -

1.Exercises (physical postures). 2. Meditation

1.         Exercises: -              Improves blood circulation in the body.

2.         Meditation: - consists of 1) Breathing exercise 2) observance of austerity, 3) physical postures 4) Restraining of sense organ,, 5) Contemplation, 6).meditation & 7) samadhi.

This system helps us to improve physical, mental & social health. It improves personal behavior of the person.

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